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2015年成人高考专升本英语复习资料(十一)

2015-07-21 09:19http://www.baidu.com四川成人高考网

形容词与副词(4-1~5-2)

大纲要求:

形容词与副词掌握比较级的构成及其用法。

一、形容词在句子中的作用

1、形容词在句子中可以作定语、表语、宾语补足语。

A good boy must behave himself. 好孩子应当行为规矩。(定语)

I like this red dress very much.(定语)

She is beautiful. (表语)

The patient is asleep. (表语)

Who has got the window open? (宾语补足语)

Ive got everything ready for the class. (宾语补足语)

I said it would happen, and sure enough it did happen.(独立成分)

2、大多数形容词既可作定语又可作表语,但有少数形容词只能作表语。

This is a red dress. The dress is red.

alike, afraid, alone, asleep, awake, aware, alive, ashamed, unable, content.

二、副词在句子中的作用

副词在句子中主要作状语,可以修饰动词、形容词、副词,有时修饰整个句子。

Unfortunately, he wasnt at home when I came. (修饰整个句子)

Luckily, she wasnt injured in the accident.(修饰整个句子)

Her pronunciation is very good.(修饰形容词)

I have been extremely busy these days.(修饰形容词)

I can hardly agree with you.(修饰动词)

He works terribly (quite) hard. (修饰副词)

三、形容词和副词比较级和最高级的构成

1.单音节词和少数双音节词(如以y结尾的)在词尾加-er , -est.

如:small, smaller, smallest; great, greater, greatest; clever, cleverer, cleverest; quiet, quieter, quietest ; common, commoner, commonest; narrow, narrower, narrowest.

2、以e结尾的词加-r , -st .

如:larger, larger , largest ; simple, simpler , simplest ; polite, politer , politest; brave, braver, bravest; fine, finer, finest.

3、以“辅音字母+y”结尾的词,变y为i 再加-er , -est .

如:busy,busier, busiest; heavy,heavier, heaviest; happy,happier, happiest.

4、以一个辅音字母结尾的词,双写该辅音字母,再加-er, -est .(一个辅音字母结尾;重读闭音节)

如:big,bigger, biggest; thin,thinner, thinnest; hot,hotter, hottest.

双音节词,多音节词比较级和最高级在词前加more, most.

如:difficult, more difficult, most difficult, interesting, more interesting, most interesting; useful, more useful, most useful.

特殊的比较级和最高级

四、形容词和副词比较级的用法

1、比较级常与than引导的状语从句连用,表示与什么相比。

This room is bigger than any other one in the hotel.

为了避免重复,从句常用一些代词。

比较必须是两个相同的成分。

Everyday he arrives earlier than anyone else in the company.

Small oranges are usually sweeter than big ones.

It is better to be prepared than unprepared.

This is easier said than done.

She is taller than I(me)。

I meet with more difficulties than she does.

The girls in my class are more active than those in his class.

1、有than 就要考虑比较级。

2、比较的成分要完全一致。

2、“比较级+and+比较级”,表示“越来越…”。

My father walked faster and faster until I could no longer keep up with him .

keep up with 跟上,赶上

no longer=not any longer

My father walked faster and faster until I couldnt keep up with him any longer. (not 用来否定动词)

Our country is getting stronger and stronger.

Things are getting better and better every day.

Im getting more and more interested in arts.

get interested in 对……感兴趣

3.“the +比较级…,the+比较级”,表示“越是…就越…”。

The more haste, the less speed. 欲速则不达。

The harder she works, the more progress she makes.

make progress 取得进步

The more I study it, the more I like it.

Actually, the busier he is, the happier he feels.

The more preparation you do now, the less nervous youll be before the exam.

The sooner you start, the faster youll be finished.

五、形容词和副词最高级的用法

最高级的前面通常要加定冠词,副词最高级前面的定冠词可以省略。最高级在使用时通常有一个短语或从句表示比较的范围。

Of all the places Ive visited, I like Hangzhou best.

This is the worst movie Ive ever seen.

Beijing is one of the largest cities in the world.

For me, Tuesday is one of the busiest day in the week.

Among all the students, he runs (the) fastest.

比较级前面有时也加the ,表示两者之间“较…的一个”。

Both of the two girls are beautiful, but I think the tall one is more beautiful of the two.

The five-year-old boy chose the more expensive of the two toys.

六、“as+原级+as”,“not as / so +原级+as”

“as+原级+as”,表示“和…一样…”, “not as / so +原级+as”表示“不及…”。

He is as good a swimmer as any of us.

注意 good 的位置

Hes as tall as I.

It is not as hot in Beijing as in Wuhan.

He does not smoke so heavily as his father.

French is just as difficult a language as English.

She is as good a cook as her mother.

I have never seen so beautiful a place as Hangzhou.

never 否定含义

类似的还有:hardly, little, few

“as+原级+as one can”和“as +原级+as possible”表示“尽可能地…”。

Come as soon as possible.

There is nothing we can do but wait as calmly as we can.

there is nothing…but… , but后一定跟动词原形

“as+原级+as”可以用来表示倍数。

My new coat cost me four times as much as the old one.

先说倍数,然后在as+原级+as

cost 花费,主语是物。spend, 主语是人。

It takes sb. some time to do sth.

spend in doing sth.

spend on sth.

This room is twice as large as that one.

This room is twice larger than that one.

七、比较级、最高级和“as+原级+as”前面都可以有表示程度的状语。

The sun is much bigger than the earth.

错误:The sun is more bigger than the earth.

She is by far the cleverest girl in our class.

by far 到目前为止

Its becoming the third largest city in the country.

They have many more chemistry books than we.

There is much more water in this jar than that one.

They will come back a little earlier.

This time she ran a good deal faster.

Tom is six centimeters taller than John.

Of all the workers in the factory, Alice is by far the most skilled.

重点掌握:

1、只能作表语的形容词。

2、特殊形容词、副词的比较级和最高级。

3、比较级多用than,个别情况下用 of the two.比较时,前后成分一定一致。

4、the +比较级…,the+比较级

5、as+原级+as , not as / so +原级+as

6、“as+原级+as”可以用来表示倍数。

He is almost as tall as his brother.

My father isnt as old as he looks.

This word is used less frequently in British English than in American English.

Spanish people usually speak more quickly than English people.

Winter is drawing near. Its getting colder and colder.

The more you practise writing, the better you will do it.

The more work we give our brains, the more work it is able to do.